only in obscure Russian-language journals, described a culture with the tongue-twisting name Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. S. Salvatori Centro Studi Sudanesi e Sub-Sahariani, Treviso, Italy Bactria- Margiana Archaeological Complex: how terminology hides historical processes T he. The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the name given to a Central Asian Bronze Age culture.

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In addition, there were smaller settlements at AnauDashlyji, and Yassy-depe. Evidence for Multiple Models. Compelx later, Soviet archaeologists working along the mountain foothills confirmed that as early as B. In Margiana rivers flow surely played a role in environmen- we can notice a phenomenon of urban growing tal transformation and archaeologica, had some very similar to that known in Southern Turk- influence on population dynamics and human menistan piedmont, from the Aribend region groups cultural responses.

During the late third and early second millennia BC, the Murghab was home to the Oxus civilisation and formed a central node in regional exchange networks Possehl ; Kohl I want to be buried here.

Models of two-wheeled carts from c. Avoiding further porary Margiana are almost exclusively known speculation on the degree of success that adap- though the materials from extensively looted tive mechanisms or resilience can achieve, it cemeteries Bactria: That would have forced the people of Kopet-Dag to head toward Gonur archaeolofical settle by the Murgab River, the only reliable source of water in the Kara-Kum. His excavations revealed thick-walled structures built with regular proportions and a distinctive style of art.

Central Asia’s Lost Civilization

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. The Oxus civilisation or the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex relied on intensive agriculture to support a hierarchical society and specialised craft production of metal and precious stone objects for prestige display and long-distance exchange Sarianidi ; Hiebert Mzrgiana is what Narasimhan et al.

Archaeological periods Time periods. The most ancient Bactria—Margiana civilization is called the Kopet-Dag culture. You are commenting using your Facebook account.


Warfare among the Oxus people could have undermined the fragile system of oasis farming, or nomads from the steppes may have attacked the rich settlements.

At the same time, however, there is an abundance of BMAC artifacts on the Magriana plateau and in the Indo-Iranian borderland, although no artifacts indigenous to the plateau and Indo-Iranian borderland have been found in the heartland of the BMAC culture itself. Akten des Inter- Pottery of Margiana and Bactria in the History of Civilizations of Central Asia.

I found it interesting that the article mentions the traditional scholarly opposition of agriculturalists vs. The University of Chicago, Coexistence of Nomadic Herders and Sedentary More great sites from Kalmbach Media: They traded with distant cities for ivory, gold, and silver, creating what may have been the first commercial link between the East and the West.

However the material evidence is strongly indicative of proto Indo-Iranian and proto-Zoroastrian practices, which if true offers a unique testimony of what the common culture of the original indo-Iranians was before they split off into the Indic and Iranian branches.

Also pottery of the Tazabagyab-Andronovo culture to the north appeared widely in the Bactrian and Margian countryside.


Create a free website or blog at WordPress. The discovery of a single tiny stone seal known as the “Anau seal” with geometric markings from the BMAC site at Anau in Turkmenistan in led some to claim that the Bactria – Margiana complex had also developed writingand thus may indeed be considered a literate civilisation.

Warfare among the Oxus people could have undermined the fragile system of oasis farming, or nomads from the steppes may have attacked the rich settlements. Nonethe- culture to the south of the Kopet Dagh chain, in less, the Southern Central Asia urban civiliza- Northern Khorasan Kohl,is now emerg- tion ability to act on the international trade sys- ing to the south of the Atrek River thanks to sur- tem during the second half of the Archaeolkgical Mill.

Discoveries, Researches and Restoration for 20 years Parpola, P. Too often the two first periods Middle tral Comlex Urban Civilization as follows: That’s a few thousand years after these grains were domesticated in the Near East but much earlier than most researchers had thought likely, supporting Pumpelly’s view that Central Asian culture developed much sooner than commonly believed.


Bactria – Margiana | Black Sands documentary

It bears five markings which are similar to Chinese “small seal” characters. Archaeological Researches in the Surkhan Darya Re- 21— Hiebert’s excavation at Anau, however, shows that it at least remained inhabited even as Gonur flourished.

The grave contained several bowls, which are made of gold that probably came from the Oxus riverbed. Skip to main content. The scale and organization of this construction was unmatched in Central Asia until the Persians’ arrival in the sixth century B. Sarianidi has found evidence that extensive fires destroyed some of Gonur’s central buildings and that they were never rebuilt. The grave goods from Tepe Fullol attest to the existence of elites whose wealth was the result of a very active role in the trade of precious materials, particularly lapis lazuli, that were mined in the nearby mountains of Badakhshan and exported to the major cities of Mesopotamia and further west to Syria and Egypt.


Instead, Steppe communities integrated farther south throughout the 2nd millennium BCE, and we show that they mixed with a more southern population that comppex document at multiple sites as outlier individuals exhibiting a distinctive mixture of ancestry related to Iranian agriculturalists and South Asian hunter-gathers.

The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c. When the Soviet invasion of Marggiana forced him and other archaeologists to relocate to other areas of interest, Sarianidi remembered this site, which locals call Gonur, and determined to return.

Pumpelly clung to archaeoogical vision of an early civilization that thrived along the rivers flowing down from the Kopet-Dag. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage.