FM 100-61 PDF

FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Operational Art. • FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force. FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Operational Art. FM Armor- and Mechanized-Based Opposing Force: Tactics. FM The OPFOR operational doctrine outlined in FM represents a realistic . *This publication supersedes FM , 26 January

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10-061 the OPFOR is on the defensive, engineer reconnaissance elements reconnoiter terrain and the enemy situation to determine routes best suited for a return to offensive action.

In the defense, they help prepare the obstacle system and, once the attack begins, they wait concealed to create fresh obstacles on the most threatened axes.

The armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR module includes a range of potential forces that can vary in size and capability.

The manual also addresses strategic and theater operations, to provide a larger context for the actions of the organizations listed above. Sometimes certain threat information may not be available at any level of classification.

Whether on the attack or in the defense, MODs However, simultaneous obstacle construction in all three areas can only occur when sufficient time, equipment, and personnel are available. The basic methods for obtaining this information are observation and aerial or ground photography. The common thread is that they have little or no organic heavy equipment. To use FMtrainers must first develop a scenario. They may be part of or sponsored by a large-scale drug or criminal organization, or they may have the backing of a wealthy outside power.

First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules are not simply unclassified handbooks on the armed forces of a particular nation.

In most cases, engineer units have to concentrate only on the most important axes. It requires minimal preparation and engineer support. He forms groupings to If not, they have the financial resources to purchase such systems.

List of United States Army Field Manuals

These may be the forces of a preindustrial nation or a nonnation group. In setting up a fully prepared defense, troops of all units are likely to take part in preparing obstacles and laying mines. In this case, the State’s military structure still consists fn of the Ground 100-6. Engineer troops assist in reconnaissance and preparation of the defense by determining the protective and camouflage features of the terrain and by helping select positions for CPs and unit strongpoints.


There may be occasions where OPFORs encountered in stability f support operations include a sophisticated military organization with heavier weapons. A third module describes the organizations, operations, and tactics of other OPFORs not covered in the first two modules. Aerial photography is an important method of gaining general information for engineer intelligence while on the march. Army, is the Ground Forces. Engineers also have more time to construct lines of communication and conceal forces and stockpiles.

At both army and army group levels, engineer units include an engineer brigade, a pontoon bridge regiment, and possibly an assault crossing battalion. This introduction provides definitions of some cm terms used throughout the manual. The OPFOR depicts its enemy by using double-lined versions of the same symbols it uses for its own friendly forces. Engineer obstacles include any actions taken to inflict losses and to delay and impede enemy movement. 010-61

FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Chptr 12 Engineer Support

Crossing is also a generic term identifying the site of a river crossing or the act of crossing. Unless the State is landlocked, it can have a blue-water navy and naval infantry marines. Engineers also determine road and bridge conditions in the defensive area, availability of local materials for construction of positions, and the status of the water supply.

The purpose of these techniques is to alter the appearance of personnel and equipment and to blend them with the surrounding 10-61. OPFOR planners consider a forcing of a water obstacle from the march to be the principal water-crossing method in a contemporary combined arms battle.

They do not try to meet such an enemy head-on in conventional combat. It provides a challenging, uncooperative sparring partner representative, but not predictive, of actual threats.

The proliferation of such foreign systems or technologies could pose a threat to the U. The methods for creating breaches and passages depend on the situation and on the type of barriers 100-16 enemy uses.

Antilanding minefields prevent landings by amphibious, airborne, or heliborne assault forces. The primary purpose of the field manuals in the series is to provide the basis for a realistic and versatile OPFOR to meet U. When conditions restrict visibility, it supplements these with listening posts.


In essence, army group and army or corps engineers reinforce first-echelon divisions as required. Enemy reconnaissance can discover minefields laid too far in advance and can take measures to overcome them.

The OPFOR uses various deception measures to mislead the enemy about size and location of forces and weapons systems and about the nature of defensive 1100-61 preparations. Rather, they provide the building blocks from which users can derive an infinite number of potential orders of 100-6, depending on their training requirements.

If the OPFOR assumes a defense out of contact with the enemy, support can begin with the creation of defensive works and the improvement of routes for the formation to deploy. The OPFOR also makes distinctions between controlled command-operated by hard wire or radio linkage or 1006-1 sensor-controlled and uncontrolled minefields. Engineer troops are vital in ensuring success. Major rivers those over m wide are an army group-level problem.

In the case of intervention by an external power or coalition, this strategy aims to undermine the enemy’s will to continue the conflict without the necessity of defeating his main forces on the battlefield. It can be any specific fk nation or organization with intentions and military capabilities that suggest it could become an adversary or challenge the national security interests of the United States or its allies. The OPFOR has responded at all organizational levels to the challenge posed by enemy advances in sensors and weapons.


When the OPFOR conducts a march in anticipation of contact, the engineer reconnaissance patrol is normally part of troop reconnaissance and reports on engineer aspects of the route. An infantry-based force differs from an armor- and mechanized-based force primarily in terms of technological level and the ability to integrate arms into combined arms combat.

Therefore, mechanical and remote means have recently become more prevalent. A country with large infantry forces can have extensive, basic weapons industries, or it may still import most systems.