HOLOTHURIA ATRA PDF

Holothoria atra, is a holothurian of order Aspidochirotes belonging to the family Description a Sea Cucumber Species Holothuria atra Jaeger, from. Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed. Holothuria atra AquaMaps Data. Holothuria (Holothuria) atra Jaeger, AphiaID. (urn:lsid: :taxname). Classification. Biota; Animalia.

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Frequent occurrence of HIV-inhibitory sulphated polysaccharides in marine invertebrates. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research.

A constriction appears, becomes deeper and deeper and after some time the integument separates leaving two relatively wide but short individuals. Based on this fact, Japanese holothiria have patented their scientific findings regarding the potential use of sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection Beutler ara al.

The name, molecular weight of the components was ascertained.

The saponins isolated from the aqueous and methanolic extract of sea cucumber Holothuria forskali have showed considerable antiviral activities Mulloy et al. Additionally, a cerebroside isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas showed effective antitumor activity Hayashi holotguria al.

IC 50 values were calculated Percentage inhibition of novel compounds against all cell lines was calculated using the following formula:. Considering these afra well as the results of present investigations, the methanolic extracts of Holothuria atra could form effective antitumour and antiviral agents.

Then it was centrifuged at rpm uolothuria 15 min. Trypan blue dye exclusion test Being an essential dye, Tryphan blue was used in estimating the number of viable cells present in a population. Steroid glycosides are a class of wide-spread natural products having marine origins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett.

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Lollyfish Sea Cucumber (Holothuria atra) ·

Similarly the inhibitory action of extracts were found against the HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was analyzed by plaque reduction assay. The susceptibility of cells to the extract exposure was characterized by IC 50 values.

Results indicated that the anti proliferative effect increased with the increase in concentration of the extracts. E and Doty, J. Holothuria atra Conservation status.

Holothuria atra is an omnivoresifting through the sediment with its tentacles and feeding on detritus and other organic matter. It has a smooth, pliable, entirely black skin which often has sand adhering to it, especially in smaller individuals. Open holorhuria a separate window.

Holothuria atra

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Fisons GC series and MS: Some of the bioactive compounds identified with their structures are given below. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: The 13C NMR spectrum showed the presence of a carbon—carb on double and indicated the presence of two conjugated carbonyls. Holothuria atra emits a toxic red fluid when its skin is rubbed or damaged, which is a defense against predators.

Table 3 Percentage cell inhibition and characterization of cell line exposed to Holothuria atra using tryphan blue.

Bioactive compounds from Holothuria atra of Indian ocean

Free sterol compositions from the sea cucumbers Pseudostichopus trachus, Holothuria Microtele nobilis, Holothuria scabra, Trochostoma orientale and Bathyplotes natans. The anti proliferative effect IC 50 value exhibited by the Holothuria atra was Kerr RG, Chen Z. Potential use of sea cucumber S. The IC 50 value for the sea cucumber Holothuria atra was Halodeima atra is a black sea cucumber with black tentaclesfrequently covered with sand H.

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Inhibitory action of Holothuria atra extracts against HSV strains -? The gradual decrease in absorbance values showed increase in inhibition effect of the extracts against the Hela cell lines. The findings suggest that H. The shallow water holothurians of Guam. The skin portion was peeled off and stored in methanol in separate containers.

Triterpene glycosides are the predominant secondary metabolites of the sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis which exhibited wide spectra of biological activities, including antifungal, cytotoxic, hemolytic, cytostatic and immunomodulatory functions Chludil et al.

The anus is terminal. Class — sea cucumbers, Holothuroidea; order — Aspidochirotida; family — holothuriids, Holothuriidae Synonym: The biologically active compounds were extracted as a function of their polarity using water and organic solvents.

The GC column dimension was: In such places it is often found in pools above the low tide mark which are warmed by the sun during the day. Among Holothuroidea genera, Cucumaria echinata and C. It is the type species of the subgenus. Aaron Premnath Lipton, Email: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. It was observed that the H. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.