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Roy a gave an overview of mantodean clas-sification until the date of publication.

: Willy Kukenthal: Books

Midfemur lacking spines; claval furrow straight or only slightly arched; fore tibia with long apical spur; fore femur with patch of small scales on mesal surface Gri-maldi Arrows indicate torus intercervicalis on the posterior edges of the intercervical sclerites.

Liturgusidaestick-shaped and grass-mantids e. How- ever, this is almost impossible to evaluate based solely on its size of 7. Among these groups are bark dwellers e. Beobachtungen zur Evolution der Kopffortstze, der mnnlichen Antennomeren, der pronotalen Loben, der Fangbein-morphologie von Chaeteessa und Metallyticus, der Tarsusmorphologie von Heteronutarsus, der Postembryonalentwick-lung, des Sexualdimorphismus, der weiblichen Grabdornen, Trends in der Beinmorphologie, der Geruschproduktion sowie des metathorakalen Gehrorgans wurden zusammengefasst und weitergehend im Detail diskutiert.

Note the medially folded scutel-lum and clypeus step-like structure. This species reaches enormous body lengths of up to 17 cm including the elongated subgenital plate, about 13 cm without itbut freshly hatched nymphs of this species are just mm Schulze, pers.

For example, a strongly elongated distal postero-ventral fore tibial spine that was described to be special for some fossils is present in the praktikuum instar nymphs of many extant species and also in the adults of some species. Additionally, they ana-lysed morphological characters of the mantodean audi-tory system. This is supported by the presence of a zologisches tubercle in the position of the tibial spur in extant Chaeteessa Roy Many structures have been shown to have evolved many times independently in Mantodea, most likely due to com-parable selective pressures in the respective habitats.


Der Vergleich von Fossilien sowie ersten Nymphenstadien und Adulti mehrerer rezenter Arten erlaubte die Diskussion einiger vermeintlich besonderer Merkmale bei Mantodea-Fossilien. The Neotropical Liturgusa Figs. Therefore they are possibly zoologischfs autapomor-phic for Empusidae see chapter 4.

The latter is true for many Iridopterygidae genera compare generic diagnoses in Ehrmann Among them are all Kkenthhal and Sibyllidae, some Hymenopodidae [e. Therefore, we find several distinct eco-morphs on all continents today that exhibit a conspicuous phenotypic similarity based on which they have been taxonomically united in the past without consideration of their biogeographical distribution.

Such a spine is missing in Blepharodinae and is therefore likely apomorphic for Empusinae see chapter 4. The forelegs and cursorial legs were herein redrawn and slightly simplified in order to focus on certain morphological traits that are of interest to the discussion of the morphology of praktikjm Mantodea Figs.

Toxodera maculata,detail of left eye in oblique anterior view. This is also true for Zoologosches Figs. The name Liturgusinae was given by Giglio-Tos Like Empusidae and some Hymenopodidae, Sibyllidae have characteristic head processes, a point- ed scutellum and clypeus, and lobes on the meso- and metathoracic femora, as well as a strongly elongated pro-thorax.

Wieland 2013, The Phylogenetic System of Mantodea

Auerdem ist mglicherweise das metathorakale Gehrorgan Zyklopenohr mehrfach unabhngig und in einigen Fllen eventuell 5sogar in beiden Geschlechtern getrennt entstanden. The small distal spines that may be present on each of the apical lobes of the fore femur genicular spines are not considered in congruence with Kaltenbach Three ocelli an unpaired anterior one and two lateral posterior ones can plesiomorphi-cally be found in all Mantodea Boudreaux Zoologica Willy Kukenthal kr.

Perlamantis allibertii,head and pronotum, dorsal view. The mantodean head capsule is triangu-lar and antero-posteriorly flattened to a varying degree in many taxa. Mantoida maya,anterior view. This is also present in some Hymeno-podidae in a very similar way, for example in Ana-sigerpes Ehrmann Der Untersuchung lagen Strukturen des gesamten Exoskelets zugrunde, einschlielich derer, die zuvor ohne Datengrundlage als konvergente Zoologiaches dargestellt wurden.


The function of the lateral tubercles has been discussed by Edmunds Haaniinae, Thespinae, and Miopteryginae were not represented in the study.

This had been proposed earlier, for example by Roy a: Phylogenetic studies involving Eremiaphilidae are scarce. However, with respect to their pres-ence in several Blattaria Fig. Therefore, the reasons for assigning the C. Therefore, this discussion so far lacks convincing data. Among them were species of two genera of Amorphoscelinae Amorphoscelis, Zoologischfs Roy, and three of Paraoxypilinae Paraoxypilus, Gyromantis, Cliomantis.

Study of first instar nymphs yielded new interpretation of structures found in the adults of several species. The relationship between the two groups had been pro-posed earlier, for example by Beier b: Antennae of male, largest number of antennomeres: Hoplocoryphinae and Haaniinae were not included. Ethanol- preserved material was preferred in order to avoid incor-rect interpretations of structures that may undergo defor-mation during desiccation.

This taxonomic position was also preferred by Holwell, Holwell et al. Ridges on the scutellum are probably apomorphic for taxa within Mantodea. Empusa pennata, nymph France: Hapalomantinae, Tropidomantinae and Nanomantinae were found to be polyphyletic.

Neither Thespidae, nor Thespinae or Oligonicinae were found zoooogisches be monophyletic therein.

Morpho-logical traits usually mentioned to characterize the group can also be found in kkentgal Mantodea e. In their Bayesian analysis, Metallyticus was recovered in a polytomy together with all remaining Mantodea at the fourth or, alternatively, third dichotomy Ware et al.