The versatile Knorr pyrrole synthesis is an important route to pyrroles it involves the condensation of a β-keto ester with an α-amino ketone An important pyrrole synthesis, known as the Knorr synthesis, is of the cyclizative condensation type. An α-amino ketone furnishes a nucleophilic nitrogen and. Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Schematic representation of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole.

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Ethyl and benzyl esters are easily made thereby, and the reaction is noteworthy in that even the highly hindered tert -butyl alcohol gives very high yields in this synthesis. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft in German.

Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

Any mechanism such as the following one that involves the formation of an enamine before the rate-determining step – pyrroel cyclization – must be ruled out. Benzyl groups can be removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis over palladium on carbonand tertiary-butyl groups can be removed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acidor boiling aqueous acetic acid.

Knorr’s pyrrole can be derivatized in a number of useful manners. The mechanism of the Knorr pyrrole synthesis begins with condensation of the amine and ketone to give an imine. The mechanism requires zinc and acetic acid as catalysts. Ring forming reactions Nitrogen heterocycle forming reactions Heterocycle forming reactions Carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions Name reactions. Dissolving Knorr’s pyrrole in concentrated sulfuric acidand then pouring the resulting solution into water will hydrolyze the 4-ester group selectively.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. A mechanism that accounts for the influence of different substitution knofr mesodl and explains the influence of a p -nitrophenyl group making a nucleophile more reactive although not as the imine includes the cyclization of a hemiacetal which is followed by different dehydration steps:.


Ley, Synlett, A synthesis of coproporphyrin III”. An improved synthesis of ethyl pyrrolecarboxylate esters from diethyl aminomalonate”. However, when unsymmetrical diketones were used, it was found that the acetyl group from the acetoacetamide was retained in the product, and one of the acyl groups from the diketone had been lost. The Journal of Organic Chemistry.

The nitro group has in every korr had a positive effect on the reaction rate.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis – Wikipedia

Similarly, 3-ketobutyraldehyde diethyl acetal led to the formation of ethyl 5-methylpyrrolecarboxylate. The resulting product, diethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylate, has been called Knorr’s Pyrrole ever since. George Kleinspehn reported that the Fischer—Fink connectivity could be forced to occur exclusively, synthess the use of diethyl oximinomalonate in the synthesis, with 2,4-pentanedione, or its 3-alkyl substituted derivatives.

The methoxy group has a negative effect on the cyclization rate in each case. La Gazzetta Chimica Italiana in Italian.

Hans Fischer and Emmy Fink found that Zanetti’s synthesis from 2,4-pentanedione and ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate gave ethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate as a trace byproduct. Microwave mediated facile one-pot synthesis of polyarylpyrroles from butene- and butyne-1,4-diones H. The usual way of doing this is from the relevant oximevia the Neber rearrangement.

The rates of cyclization have been compared using ammonia and methylamine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This reduction consumes two equivalents of zinc and four equivalents of acetic acid. Site Search any all words Main Categories.

Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

There are a oyrrole of important syntheses of pyrroles that are operated in the manner of the Knorr Synthesis, despite having mechanisms of very different connectivity between the starting materials and the pyrrolic product. The imine then tautomerizes to an enamine, followed by cyclization, elimination of water, and isomerization to the pyrrole.


The original Knorr synthesis employed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetateone of which was converted to ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate by dissolving it in glacial acetic acidand slowly adding one equivalent of saturated aqueous sodium nitriteunder external cooling. Venkataraman Amarnath pyrrols shown J. Meanwhile, Johnson had extended the Fischer-Fink synthesis by reacting 2-oximinoacetoacetate esters ethyl, benzyl, or tertiary-butylwith 3-alkyl substituted 2,4-pentanediones.

Journal of the Chemical Society Resumed: Chemische Berichte in German. Canadian Journal of Chemistry. The Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis is the condensation of a 1,4-dicarbonyl compound with an excess of a primary amine or ammonia to give a pyrrole.

The substituents synrhesis influence the basicity of the imine, with the nitro group synyhesis to a more basic nucleophile. Magnesium Nitride as a Convenient Source of Ammonia: One equivalent of sodium hydroxide will saponify the 2-ester selectively. An important product of the Fischer-Fink synthesis was ethyl 4,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate, made from ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate and 2-methyloxobutanal, in turn made by the Claisen condensation of 2-butanone with ethyl formate.

Modern practice is to add the oxime solution resulting from the nitrosation and the zinc dust gradually to a well-stirred solution of ethyl acetoacetate in glacial acetic acid. If the ring is formed from an imine that is generated from a primary amine, a charged immonium ion must be an intermediate.

Even thioesters have been successfully pyrroel, using the method.