Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit is a book about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel by Alexandre Kojève. Alexandre Kojève was a Russian-born French philosopher and statesman whose philosophical Some of Kojève’s more important lectures on Hegel have been published in English in the now classic Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. Jan 14, Introhution n rte Reading of Hegel: Lecttres on rle Phenomenology of Spirig . KojEve is the most thoughtful, the most learned, the most pro-.
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At the beginning of this History, which ends finally in absolute Knowledge, there are, so to speak, the necessary and sufficient conditions. It is this second, metaphorical sense of death alone which is at issue in consciousness’s seeking of the death of the other: The man who contemplates is “absorbed” by what he contemplates; the “know- ing subject” “loses” himself in the object that is known. On the Hegelian model, being can only be ‘there’ in Heidegger’s sense of presenting itself as the object of inquiry for a fundamentally self-interpreting entity, if this entity has previously been constituted as an entity of this kind, through a process of mutual recognition.
Now in actual fact the experience is had by a man who lives within Nature and is indissolubly bound to it, but is also opposed to it and wants to transform it: Given that the Master is the power that rules over this given-being and that this given-being is the power that rules over the Other [i.
It is koneve to live in terms of terror. And the origin of this absolute negation can only be the absolute dread inspired by the given World, or more precisely, by that hegrl, or by him who, dominates this World, by the Master of this World.
Outline of a Phenomenology of Right.
History and Desire in Kojève
And Hegel 32 Summary of the First Six Chapters of the Phenomenology of Spirit studies these conditions in the first four chapters of the Phe- nomenology. Produc- tion transforms the means of production; the modification of means simplifies production; and so on.
To be sure, without the Master, there would have been no History; but only because without him there would have been no Slave and hence no Work. Kojeve describes the character of wis- dom even negel he does not prove it has been actualized.
At the most, he will want to “reform” it — that is, to change its details, to make particular transformations without modifying its essential characteristics. Being can be revealed by Thought; there is a Thought in Being and of Being, only because Being is dialectical; i. For the truth of his subjective-cer- tainty [of the idea that he has of himself, of the value that he attributes to himself] could have been nothing but the fact that his own Being-for-itself was manifested to him as an autonomous object; or again, to say the same thing: It is, therefore, an unequal and one-sided recognition thae’nas been born from this relation of Master and Slave.
Hence, there is Time only where there is History. Now if — on the other hand — there is a multiplicity of these Desires for universal Recognition, it is obvious that the Action that is born of these Desires can — at least in the beginning— be nothing but a life and death Fight Kampf auf 40 Summary of the First Six Chapters of the Phenomenology of Spirit Leben und Tod. Inversely, in order to explain the possibility of the Phenomenology, which is written on a table and which explains the wars of Napoleon, we must suppose the four premises mentioned.
The disavowal of such metaphysically anchored and ultimately timeless configurations of human being frees man from determinism and ‘throws’ him into his existential freedom. Hence individual values and needs would converge upon a common settlement in which a shared human nature comprising the desires and inclinations that define humanity as such would find its satisfaction.
Or again, he must transform the natural and human world in which he is not recognized into a world in which this recognition takes place. He is kojve editor of Politics and the Arts: Thus,] the nega- tive-or-negating relation to the object becomes a form of this object and gains permanence, precisely because, for the worker,’ the object has autonomy. History recurs as something that can only be enjoyed as a tourist attraction, or as a reverie of the past, viewed from the vantage point of its demise.
Now, for vulgar science, this real kojevr supposed to be independent of the thought which describes it. However, where for Heidegger it is being’s own freedom which is at stake, its character as pure possibility – to which anxiety returns it from its absorption in the world; for Hegel, it is the freedom of the other which inspires fear.
But on the other hand, this same fear- according to Hegel— has a positive value, which conditions the Slave’s superiority to the Master.
Introduction to the Reading of Hegel, Lectures on the ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’
On the last page of the Phenomenology, Hegel says, time is history whereas nature is space. And if he has this faith, nothing will be so recal- citrant and hard as not to reveal itself to him.
On the other hand, one might suppose that Dialectic is the preserve of logical thought; or in other words, that this passage is concerned with a philosophical method, a way of investigation or exposition. Le Concept, le Temps et le Discours. Mac- millan, 12nd ed. Therefore, the human being can be formed only if at least two of these Desires confront one another.
The victory of reason was, for Bataille, a curse; its inevitable triumph in the unstoppable march of modernity brought with it homogeneity, order, and disenchantment.
Now, this revolutionary trans- formation of the World presupposes the “negation,” the non- accepting of the given World in its totality.
The presentation of this struggle as a trial by death is somewhat obscure. A life and death Fight because Desire that is directed toward a Desire directed toward a Desire goes beyond the biological given, so that Action carried out for the sake of this Desire is not limited by this given. Work that creates a nonnatural, technical, humanized World adapted to the human Desire of a being that has demon- strated and realized its superiority to Nature by risking its life for the wowbiological end of Recognition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Con- templation reveals the object, not the subject. The Slave, also, considers him as such. He tries, therefore, to justify by a new ideology this contra- diction in skeptical existence, which is, all things considered, the Stoic— i.
And Hegel says that the being that is incapa- ble of putting its life in danger in order to attain ends that are not immediately vital— i. And Hegel does actually say somewhere that he is only rediscovering the ancient or, rather, Platonic, dialectic.
Without the Slave’s Work, the “first” Fight would be reproduced indefinitely: It is only when there is mutuality and recognition of all, that the recognition of any one becomes fully possible.
But these are not the only advantages procured by Work; Work will also open the way to Freedom or— more exactly— to libera- tion. Allan Bloom Plato ‘s Dialogue on Friendship: