Assuming that the polarizers are crossed to produce a dark field, the polariscope is then described as a circular dark-field polariscope. the polariscope is changing from a dark-field configuration to a light-field configuration. Photoelasticity is a nondestructive, whole-field, . the polariscope must be arranged so as to allow light .. izer always looks dark because half the light striking. A polariscope uses polarized light for gem identification. is at right angles to the vibrational direction of the analyzer, the field between them remains dark. Throughout a ° rotation the stone blinks 4 times, light and dark.

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When, for instance, a gemstone would create a retardation of nm, the starting spectrum would be on the boundary of the first order and second order and go from magenta to blue to blue-green to yellow to red. Same image as above, but enlarged and the waveplate removed for better view for illustration purposes only. That isn’t very important, just make sure you adjust the position of the wedge or any other wave plate accordingly.

Quadrants 1 and 3 show a yellow-orange color, while quadrants 2 and 4 turn blue. Dichroscope Return to the Table of Contents. It should be noted that this image is an ideal one two isogyres seenwhich is rarely the case. When one looks closely click the image for a clearer, larger view the colors in the quadrants change. Tools All Pages Sandbox. You will find the interference flashes more easily in certain circumstances. The length of the roll is the fast ray, the cutting edge is the direction of the slow ray.

Views Read View source View history. The best aproach is to turn the stone so it will show maximum curvature. In mineralogy, retardation means that one refracted ray of light is lagging behind another ray of light.

To remove this uncertainty, “retardation plates” are made. The crosses indicate the vertical and horizontal alignments also indicated by the white lines. When you observe this image carefully, you will notice that the curve endpoints are at the right.


For convenience, the image at the left has the area of interest marked, which is the area just around the center of the interference figure the white circle.

The quadrants 1 and 3 clearly have a shift of color to blue. Other cellophanes like ScotchTape may also work. The distance between the two melatopes is dependent on the “2V” annd of the mineral.

The interference figures always appear around the optic axes of minerals.


Quadrants 1 and 3 turn more or less blue here addition of color occurredwhile in quadrants 2 and 4 the colors change to predominantly yellow-orange here ploariscope occurred. When you don’t know the orientation of the polarizer and the analyzer of your polariscope, all you need to do is look at the cross in the uniaxial interference figure. Biaxial minerals have two optic axes, hence they have two “melatopes” that are in the center or the isogyres.

For the very small spheres one will need magnification to observe ligght interference figure. At the same time the colored rings in the 1st and 3rd quadrants will move inward. Here the interference pattern has the isogyres in the lower right and upper left, but they could be in the lower left and upperright aswell. When the slow ray of the gemstone and the slow ray of the added mineral align, the shift will be gield the right.

These directions are the optic axes of the gemstone. Pay attention only to the reaction of the forward motion. In addition, the polariscope may be very useful for distinguishing solid inclusions from negative inclusions as well as for spotting polysynthetic twinning.

Polariscope – The Gemology Project

The plates should be placed directly under or directly above the gemstone. In gemology, we lifht a conoscope a strain free acrylic or glass sphere on a rod to determine optic character uniaxial or biaxial in anisotropic gemstones.

Hover it back and forth over the interference pattern, but pay attention only to the change in the forward direction.

Dxrk stones have one optic axis, biaxial gemstones have two. The polarizing filters of this instrument are made of polarizing plastic sheets polyvinyl alcohol polaariscope dichroic molecules – stretched polymers. This means the stone has a positive optic sign. Although one can get reasonably nice images with them, a conoscope rod is preferred and the smaller the sphere, the sharper the image.

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The wedge is not used as such mostly in gemology, instead it is used to hover over an interference pattern and to determine optic sign by observing the movement of the isochromes.

Florists usually have cellophane plastic in which they wrap their flowers. As with the negative optic sign image, when you move the quartz wedge in the oppostite direction back to quadrant 3the movement of the isochromes is reveresed. With the aid of a few polarizing sheets one can turn the gemological microscope into a polarizing microscope for less than USD That is the direction indicated by the arrow. The first or atleast the first reported one who used these polystyrene plastic simulated quartz wedges was Pat Daly, FGA from England.

Retrieved from ” http: The wave plate removed for clearer view this is for illustration only and will not work in practice. With some small additions, one can determine both optic character and the optic sign of a fielc. Retardation plates as those added minerals are known have a known retardation, and the vibrational directions of the slow and fast rays are known.

The dark cross is actually made up of two L-shaped “isogyres” that will always stay in the same position in uniaxial stones. Place the stone is a shallow dish of water or baby oil and rotate the stone slowly in it. Alot of the following discussion involves such a setup, although most of it can be achieved with the usual gemological polariscope aswell. Buy two polarizing sheets 50 x 50 mm and tape them in crossed position on your microscope.

As a result it will not show the typical bull’s-eye but a combination of the left and right Airy Spirals 4 spirals in total under liight conoscope.